SWI-Prolog has a number of memory areas which are only enlarged to a
certain limit. The default sizes for these areas should suffice for most
applications, but big applications may require larger ones. They are
modified by command-line options. The table below shows these areas. The
first column gives the option name to modify the size of the area. The
option character is immediately followed by a number and optionally by a
k or no unit
indicator, the value is interpreted in Kbytes (1024 bytes), with
the value is interpreted in Mbytes (1024 × 1024 bytes).
The local-, global- and trail-stack are limited to 128 Mbytes on 32 bit processors, or more generally to 2 ** bits-per-long - 5 bytes.
The PrologScript facility described in section
126.96.36.199 provides a mechanism for specifying options with the
load-file. On Windows the default stack-sizes are controlled using the
Windows registry on the key
using the names
The value is a
DWORD expressing the default stack size in
Kbytes. A GUI for modifying these values is provided using the XPCE
package. To use this, start the XPCE manual tools using manpce/0,
after which you find Preferences in the File menu.
|-L||16M||local stack||The local stack is used to store the execution environments of procedure invocations. The space for an environment is reclaimed when it fails, exits without leaving choice points, the alternatives are cut off with the !/0 predicate or no choice points have been created since the invocation and the last subclause is started (last call optimisation).|
|-G||32M||global stack||The global stack is used to store terms created during Prolog's execution. Terms on this stack will be reclaimed by backtracking to a point before the term was created or by garbage collection (provided the term is no longer referenced).|
|-T||32M||trail stack||The trail stack is used to store assignments during execution. Entries on this stack remain alive until backtracking before the point of creation or the garbage collector determines they are nor needed any longer.|
|-A||1M||argument stack||The argument stack is used to store one of the
intermediate code interpreter's registers. The amount of space needed on
this stack is determined entirely by the depth in which terms are nested
in the clauses that constitute the program. Overflow is most likely when
using long strings in a clause.
In addition, this stack is used by some built-in predicates to handle cyclic terms. Its default size limit is proportional to the global stack limit such that it will never overflow.
|Table 2 : Memory areas|
With the heap, we refer to the memory area used by malloc() and friends. SWI-Prolog uses the area to store atoms, functors, predicates and their clauses, records and other dynamic data. As of SWI-Prolog 2.8.5, no limits are imposed on the addresses returned by malloc() and friends.
On some machines, the runtime stacks described above are allocated using `sparse allocation'. Virtual space up to the limit is claimed at startup and committed and released while the area grows and shrinks. On Win32 platform this is realised using VirtualAlloc() and friends. On Unix systems this is realised using mmap().
The number of atoms is limited to 16777216 (16M) on 32-bit machines. On 64-bit machines this is virtually unlimited. See also section 188.8.131.52.
resource_error. On systems that lack GMP, integers are 64-bit on 32 as well as 64-bit machines.
Integers up to the value of the max_tagged_integer Prolog flag are represented more efficiently on the stack. For clauses and records the difference is much smaller.
The boot compiler (see -b option) does not support
the module system. As large parts of the system are written in Prolog
itself we need some way to avoid name clashes with the user's
predicates, database keys, etc. Like Edinburgh C-Prolog Pereira,
1986 all predicates, database keys, etc. that should be
hidden from the user start with a dollar (
$) sign (see style_check/1).