A.24 url.pl -- Analysing and constructing URL

- Jan Wielemaker
- Lukas Faulstich

This library deals with the analysis and construction of a URL, Universal Resource Locator. URL is the basis for communicating locations of resources (data) on the web. A URL consists of a protocol identifier (e.g. HTTP, FTP, and a protocol-specific syntax further defining the location. URLs are standardized in RFC-1738.

The implementation in this library covers only a small portion of the defined protocols. Though the initial implementation followed RFC-1738 strictly, the current is more relaxed to deal with frequent violations of the standard encountered in practical use.

[det]global_url(+URL, +Base, -Global)
Translate a possibly relative URL into an absolute one.
syntax_error(illegal_url) if URL is not legal.
True if URL is an absolute URL. That is, a URL that starts with a protocol identifier.
http_location(?Parts, ?Location)
Construct or analyze an HTTP location. This is similar to parse_url/2, but only deals with the location part of an HTTP URL. That is, the path, search and fragment specifiers. In the HTTP protocol, the first line of a message is
<Action> <Location> HTTP/<version>
Location Atom or list of character codes.
[det]parse_url(+URL, -Attributes)
[det]parse_url(+URL, +BaseURL, -Attributes)
Construct or analyse a URL. URL is an atom holding a URL or a variable. Parts is a list of components. Each component is of the format Name(Value). Defined components are:
The used protocol. This is, after the optional url:, an identifier separated from the remainder of the URL using :. parse_url/2 assumes the http protocol if no protocol is specified and the URL can be parsed as a valid HTTP url. In addition to the RFC-1738 specified protocols, the file protocol is supported as well.
Host-name or IP-address on which the resource is located. Supported by all network-based protocols.
Integer port-number to access on the \arg{Host}. This only appears if the port is explicitly specified in the URL. Implicit default ports (e.g. 80 for HTTP) do \emph{not} appear in the part-list.
(File-) path addressed by the URL. This is supported for the ftp, http and file protocols. If no path appears, the library generates the path /.
Search-specification of HTTP URL. This is the part after the ?, normally used to transfer data from HTML forms that use the GET protocol. In the URL it consists of a www-form-encoded list of Name=Value pairs. This is mapped to a list of Prolog Name=Value terms with decoded names and values.
Fragment specification of HTTP URL. This is the part after the # character.

The example below illustrates the all this for an HTTP URL.

?- parse_url('http://swi.psy.uva.nl/message.cgi?msg=Hello+World%21#x', P).

P = [ protocol(http),
      search([ msg = 'Hello World!'

By instantiating the parts-list this predicate can be used to create a URL.

[det]www_form_encode(+Value, -XWWWFormEncoded)
[det]www_form_encode(-Value, +XWWWFormEncoded)
En/Decode between native value and application/x-www-form-encoded. Maps space to +, keeps alnum, maps anything else to %XX and newlines to %OD%OA. When decoding, newlines appear as a single newline (10) character.
[det]url_iri(+Encoded, -Decoded)
[det]url_iri(-Encoded, +Decoded)
Convert between a URL, encoding in US-ASCII and an IRI. An IRI is a fully expanded Unicode string. Unicode strings are first encoded into UTF-8, after which %-encoding takes place.
[det]parse_url_search(?Spec, ?Fields:list(Name=Value))
Construct or analyze an HTTP search specification. This deals with form data using the MIME-type =application/x-www-form-urlencoded= as used in HTTP GET requests.
[det]file_name_to_url(+File, -URL)
[semidet]file_name_to_url(-File, +URL)
Translate between a filename and a file:// URL.
To be done
Current implementation does not deal with paths that need special encoding.